Author Archives: khajamoinuddinnadaf

Effects of Distributed Development on Software Quality

The Short note on the Does Distributed Development Affect Software Quality?

An Empirical Case Study of Windows Vista. Is as follows.

In there study we divide binaries based on the level of geographic dispersion of their commits. We studied the post release failures for the Windows Vista code base and concluded that distributed development has little to no effect. We posit that this negative result is a significant finding asit refutes, at least in the context of Vista development, conventional wisdom and widely held beliefs about distributed development. When coupled with prior work, our results support the conclusion that there are scenarios in which distributed development can work for large software projects. Based on earlier work our study shows that Organizational differences are much stronger indicators of quality than geography. An Organizational compact but geographically distributed project might be better than an geographically close organizationally distributed project. We have presented a number of observations about the development practices at Microsoft which may mitigate some of the hurdles associated with distributed development, but no causal link has been established. There is a strong similarity between these practices and those that have worked for other teams in the past as well as solutions proposed in other work. Directly examining the effects of these practices is an important direction for continued research in globally distributed software development.

 

In this paper, we have presented a case study on the communication of distributed projects. The study shows that there is no significant difference in the amount of communication of two-location projects and three-location projects. The results show a trend that the amount of communication in two location projects is higher than the amount of communication in three-location projects. The study also analyzes the effect of time zone differences classifying the projects in three time ranges: large, medium, and small. The result also shows no significant difference in the communication of projects in these time zone ranges; however, the data shows a trend towards more communication in the small time zone range. We also analyzed the reply time for e-mails in projects located in different time zones. We found that in projects located in the small time zone range, the reply time for emails was faster than in projects located in the large time zone range. Our results indicate a trend on the effect of communication, however, the analysis reveal that the differences are not significant. As future work, we plan to collect more data in the next editions of DOSE in order to have more reliable data. We also plan to extend the study and compare the distributed projects with projects developed in a single location. Additionally, we want to study the quality of the produced software and compare the number of failures in local projects to two-location projects and three-location projects. For future studies, we will keep the classification by time zone ranges. Acknowledgments: We would like to thank all the people involved in DOSE: Do Le Minh, Franco Brusatti, Giordano Tamburrelli, Huynh Quyet Thang, Lajos Kollar, Mei Tang, Natalia Komlevaja, Nazareno Aguirre, Peter Kolb, Raffaela Mirandola, Sergey Karpenko, Sungwon Kang, Victor Krisilov, Viktor Gergel; and the students who took the course

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copy left, copy right and creative commons

Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rightsto it, usually for a limited time. Generally, it is “the right to copy”, but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the work, who may financially benefit from it, and other related rights. It is a form of intellectual property(like the patent, the a trademark, and the trade secret) applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete.

 


A quick check shows that India ascribe to the Berne Convention – the international legislative framework for the protection of copyright.

In effect the copyright to your creative work is protected as soon as it’s made. If it is yours, so is the copyright. However, and as you’re obviously aware, there is always the potential problem of proving that the work is really yours. Registering your copyright legally affords you this proof. I am not a legal counsellor, etc, etc..

 

The Sign used to Identify This is as Shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are three types of protection for intellectual property. Property that a person creates with their mind or intellect.

* patents protect inventions and improvements to existing inventions
* trademarks are brand names and/or designs which are applied to products you can sell or services that you offer
* copyright protection covers literary, artistic, and musical works.
* Examples of Copyrights
* Gone With The Wind – the book and film
* System of A Down – the band’s recordings and artwork
* Video games are all works that are copyrighted.

Copyright Protection
Your work is under copyright protection the moment it is created and fixed in a tangible form so that it is perceptible either directly or with the aid of a machine or device. The moment you write it, paint it, or put it on the internet, your work is copyright protected.

Library of Congress
In the United States, the Library of Congress officialy registers copyrights which now last for the life of the author plus 70 years. No one else can profit or copy your ideas without your permission during this time period.
Do I Need to Register?
Your works of art, music, etc, all have copyright protection with or without formal copyright registration with the Library of Congress or any other copyright office. However, copyright registration adds proof of copyright ownership and aids you in fighting copyright infringement. Copyright literally means the right to copy.

 

How to get a Copy Right license.

 

The procedure to get Copyright for website in India are given below-

The procedure to get Copyright for website in India are given below-

 

An application for copyright on Form-IV accompanied by four copies of the work is to be made on Form IV ( Including Statement of Particulars and Statement of Further Particulars) along with the prescribed fee at Copyright Office of the Department of Education, New Delhi. The Copyright Office initially provides a filing number and filing date and issues a filing receipt. Thereafter the application is formally examined by the Office. Defects will be communicated to the applicant. Once the application is found to be in order it is accepted and the Copyright Office issues the registration certificate.

 

Duration of registration

 

The duration granted for works of copyright varies depending on the type of work. Literary or musical works or artistic works, other than photographs, have a life span, which extends for the life of the author and 60 years from the end of the year in which the author dies. However, if the work has not been published, performed, or offered for sale or broadcast during the life of the author, the copyright protection shall continue for a period of 60 years from the end of the year in which any of these acts are done relating to the work.

 

Cinematograph films, photographs and computer programs are protected for 60 years from the end of the year in which the work is made available to the public with the consent of the owner of the copyright or published, or, failing such an event, for 60 years from the end of the year in which the work is made. Sound recordings are protected for 60 years from the end of the year in which the recording is first published.

 

In the case of anonymous or pseudonymous works, the copyright is for 60 years from the end of the year in which the work is made available to the public with the consent of the owner of the copyright or from the end of the year in which it is reasonable to presume that the author died, which ever term is shorter.

 

Use of the “©” symbol

 

Anyone who claims copyrights in a work can use copyright notice to alert the public of the claim. It is not necessary to have a registration to use the designations though it is highly advisable to incorporate a copyright notice like the symbol, etter “c” in a circle or the word “Copyright” followed by name of copyright owner and year of first publication. For example, © ipfirmsdirectory 1999.

 

Remedies For Infringement

 

It is the sole responsibility of the owner to see that his copyright is not being infringed upon by someone else. It is the owner’s duty to file a suit of infringement against the infringer. The reliefs which may be usually awarded in such a suit are –

 

i. Injunctons whether interim or final.

 

ii. Damages.

 

Criminal action also can be taken on the basis of copyright registration. The minimum punishment for infringement of copyright is imprisonment for six months with the minimum fine of Rs. 50,000/-. In the case of a second and subsequent conviction the minimum punishment is imprisonment for one year and fine of Rs. one lakh.

 

International copyright protection

 

India is a member of both Berne and Universal Conventions and Indian law extends protection to all copyrighted works originating from any of the convention countries. Foreign works first published in a country which is a member of either of the Conventions would be accorded the same copyright protection in India as Indian works without undergoing any formalities, on the assumption that the home country accords reciprocity to Indian works.

 

For more information-

http://ezinearti cles.com/?Copyright-in-India:- Law-and-Procedure&id=73309An application for copyright on Form-IV accompanied by four copies of the work is to be made on Form IV ( Including Statement of Particulars and Statement of Further Particulars) along with the prescribed fee at Copyright Office of the Department of Education, New Delhi. The Copyright Office initially provides a filing number and filing date and issues a filing receipt. Thereafter the application is formally examined by the Office. Defects will be communicated to the applicant. Once the application is found to be in order it is accepted and the Copyright Office issues the registration certificate.

Duration of registration

The duration granted for works of copyright varies depending on the type of work. Literary or musical works or artistic works, other than photographs, have a life span, which extends for the life of the author and 60 years from the end of the year in which the author dies. However, if the work has not been published, performed, or offered for sale or broadcast during the life of the author, the copyright protection shall continue for a period of 60 years from the end of the year in which any of these acts are done relating to the work.

Cinematograph films, photographs and computer programs are protected for 60 years from the end of the year in which the work is made available to the public with the consent of the owner of the copyright or published, or, failing such an event, for 60 years from the end of the year in which the work is made. Sound recordings are protected for 60 years from the end of the year in which the recording is first published.

In the case of anonymous or pseudonymous works, the copyright is for 60 years from the end of the year in which the work is made available to the public with the consent of the owner of the copyright or from the end of the year in which it is reasonable to presume that the author died, which ever term is shorter.

Use of the “©” symbol

Anyone who claims copyrights in a work can use copyright notice to alert the public of the claim. It is not necessary to have a registration to use the designations though it is highly advisable to incorporate a copyright notice like the symbol, etter “c” in a circle or the word “Copyright” followed by name of copyright owner and year of first publication. For example, © ipfirmsdirectory 1999.

Remedies For Infringement

It is the sole responsibility of the owner to see that his copyright is not being infringed upon by someone else. It is the owner’s duty to file a suit of infringement against the infringer. The reliefs which may be usually awarded in such a suit are –

i. Injunctons whether interim or final.

ii. Damages.

Criminal action also can be taken on the basis of copyright registration. The minimum punishment for infringement of copyright is imprisonment for six months with the minimum fine of Rs. 50,000/-. In the case of a second and subsequent conviction the minimum punishment is imprisonment for one year and fine of Rs. one lakh.

International copyright protection

India is a member of both Berne and Universal Conventions and Indian law extends protection to all copyrighted works originating from any of the convention countries. Foreign works first published in a country which is a member of either of the Conventions would be accorded the same copyright protection in India as Indian works without undergoing any formalities, on the assumption that the home country accords reciprocity to Indian works.

For more information-
http://ezinearti cles.com/?Copyright-in-India:- Law-and-Procedure&id=73309

 

 

Copyleft:Copyleft is a general method for making a program (or other work) free, and requiring all modified and extended versions of the program to be free as well.

The simplest way to make a program free software is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. This allows people to share the program and their improvements, if they are so minded. But it also allows uncooperative people to convert the program into proprietary software. They can make changes, many or few, and distribute the result as a proprietary product. People who receive the program in that modified form do not have the freedom that the original author gave them; the middleman has stripped it away.

In the GNU project, our aim is to give all users the freedom to redistribute and change GNU software. If middlemen could strip off the freedom, we might have many users, but those users would not have freedom. So instead of putting GNU software in the public domain, we “copyleft” it. Copyleft says that anyone who redistributes the software, with or without changes, must pass along the freedom to further copy and change it. Copyleft guarantees that every user has freedom.

Copyleft also provides an incentive for other programmers to add to free software. Important free programs such as the GNU C++ compiler exist only because of this.

Copyleft also helps programmers who want to contribute improvements to free software get permission to do so. These programmers often work for companies or universities that would do almost anything to get more money. A programmer may want to contribute her changes to the community, but her employer may want to turn the changes into a proprietary software product.

When we explain to the employer that it is illegal to distribute the improved version except as free software, the employer usually decides to release it as free software rather than throw it away.

To copyleft a program, we first state that it is copyrighted; then we add distribution terms, which are a legal instrument that gives everyone the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the program’s code, or any program derived from it, but only if the distribution terms are unchanged. Thus, the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.

Proprietary software developers use copyright to take away the users’ freedom; we use copyright to guarantee their freedom. That’s why we reverse the name, changing “copyright” into “copyleft.”

Copyleft is a way of using of the copyright on the program. It doesn’t mean abandoning the copyright; in fact, doing so would make copyleft impossible. The “left” in “copyleft” is not a reference to the verb “to leave”—only to the direction which is the inverse of “right”.

 

The Symbol for Copyleft is as follows.

 


 

 

Creative Commons:

A Creative Commons license is one of several public copyright licenses that allow the distribution of copyrighted works. A Creative Commons license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and even build upon a work that they have created. CC provides an author flexibility (for example, they might choose to allow only non-commercial uses of their own work) and protects the people who use or redistribute an author’s work, so they don’t have to worry about copyright infringement, as long as they abide by the conditions the author has specified.

 

The creative Commons license symbol is shown as follows.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creative Commons is a non-profit organization that has released a set of free and voluntary copyright licenses. With Creative Commons licenses, creators have the choice to give up certain exclusive rights normally associated with copyright, while retaining others. There are six different licenses that provide users with different levels of freedom. For more information about the different licenses and how they work, check out our Creative Commons landing page, the Creative Commons page on licenses, and our 101 article about Sharing using Creative Commons.

How can I select a Creative Commons license for my track(s)?

After uploading a track or set, you can select under which license you would like to release your piece of audio on SoundCloud. You can later change the license via the track settings (click the pen icon above the waveform) at any time.

If you release all your tracks under a CC license, you’d want to look into the default settings for your licenses here: http://soundcloud.com/settings/extra. No matter how this setting is configured, you can still change the license on individual tracks.

How can I find tracks licensed under Creative Commons?

We recently released advanced search features that let you select to search under CC parameters. Learn more about how to use advanced search in this blog post. Additionally, you can explore tracks licensed under CC license.

How do I use tracks licensed under Creative Commons?

You can use tracks that you find on SoundCloud according to the terms provided in the license. All Creative Commons licenses require at least attribution, which means you must give credit to the original author. (A link to the track page on SoundCloud is probably smart, also). Tracks that are licensed with a Non-Commercial term means that they can only be used in a non-commercial setting; a No-Derivatives term means that you can’t create any work that is based on or incorporates the original work; and the Share-Alike term means that you must release any work that uses the original under exactly the same license.
If you follow the terms of the Creative Commons license, you do not have to ask for permission from the original creator – in fact, that’s the whole point – but many creators like to see projects that use their work.

Lab Evaluation 5 Khaja Moinuddin

http://www.4shared.com/office/KBVqCMJ1/Online_shopping.html
http://www.4shared.com/office/93A5wXnK/USers_manual.html

Lab evaluation 4- khaja moinuddin

 

 

Online Book Store Test

Baseline test

Baseline:

  1. Stakeholders (Application users) are two identical users, customer and administrator.
  2. Customer shall register their information to the database (ID, password, name, address, phone number, email, credit card number, etc)
  3. The application shall support simple search of books (by ISBN, title and author etc)
  4. User be able to order books (registered user only)
  5. Administrator shall add the inventory list.
  6. Administrator shall delete the inventory list.

Test Number #1

 

Test case

: Stakeholders (Application users) are two identical users, customer and administrator.

 

Test procedure:

  1. Check whether the webpage exists for customer.

Test resultSatisfied

  1. Check whether the webpage separated with one for administrator exists for customer.

Test resultSatisfied

 

Test Number #2

 

Test case

: Customer shall register their information to the database (ID, password, name, address, phone number, email, credit card number, etc)

 

Test procedure:

  1. Move to the webpage for customer. 
  2. Check whether the menu for registration exists or not.

Test resultSatisfied. In the right top part of the webpage

  1. Check whether the menu for registration is linked correctly.

Test resultSatisfied

  1. Check whether the customer be able to register successfully.

Test resultSatisfied.

 

Test Number #3

 

Test case

: The registered customer should be able to search books. (By ISBN, title and author)

 

Test procedure:

  1. Check whether the menu for simple search exists or not.

Test resultSatisfied. In the right top part of the webpage for the customer logged in.

  1. Check whether the menu for search is linked correctly.

Test resultSatisfied.

  1. Check whether the customer be able to search books by ISBN successfully.

Test resultSatisfied.

  1. Check whether the customer be able to search books by title successfully.

Test resultSatisfied.

  1. Check whether the customer be able to search books by author successfully.

Test resultSatisfied.

 

Test Number #4

 

Test case

: The registered customer should be able to order a book.

 

Test procedure:

  1. Check whether the menu for ordering a book exists or not.

Test resultSatisfied. In the right top part of the webpage for the customer logged in.

  1. Check whether the menu for ordering a book is linked correctly.

Test result: Satisfied. 

  1. Check whether the administrator be able to order a book successfully.

Test resultSatisfied.

 

Test Number #5

 

Test case

: Administrator shall add the inventory list

 

Test procedure:

  1. Move to the webpage for administrator 
  2. Check whether the menu for adding and deleting exists or not.

Test resultSatisfied. In the right top part of the webpage

  1. Check whether the menu for adding a book is linked correctly.

Test resultSatisfied

  1. Check whether the administrator be able to add a book successfully.

Test resultSatisfied.

 

Test Number #6

 

Test case

: Administrator shall delete the inventory list

 

Test procedure:

  1. Move to the webpage for administrator
  2. Check whether the menu for deleting exists or not.

Test resultSatisfied. In the right top part of the webpage

  1. Check whether the menu for adding a book is linked correctly.

Test resultSatisfied

  1. Check whether the administrator be able to delete a book successfully.

Test resultSatisfied.

 

 

Lab Evauation 4… Khaja Moinuddin

ISO 9001 Clauses

Description

Related ITD Procedure

1.         Scope

Scope of the QMS, areas covered and any exclusions identified

Quality Manual

2.         Normative Reference

The normative reference ISO 9000 (fundamentals/vocabulary) must be used in conjunction with the standard itself

Quality Manual

3.         Terms & Definitions

The terms and definitions given in ISO 9000 apply.

Quality Manual

4.1       General Requirements

           

This clause covers the requirement of the organisation to actually set up a quality management system, and broadly sets out the activities associated with this. The organisation shall document, implement and maintain a quality management system (QMS) and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of the standard.

 

 

Quality Manual Quality Manual Each procedure under
   Effectiveness Review section

Quality Manual

Quality Manual  and
     Management Review
ITD Corrective & Preventive
   Action Procedure and
    Management Review

 

4.2       Documentation Requirements

The important issue here is that people must have the information they need to do their job. The QMS must include quality policy, quality objectives, quality manual, documented procedures, documents to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of its processes, and records. All documents are required to be controlled. Also required is the control of records, i.e. identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention time and disposition of records.

Document Control Procedure

5.         Management Responsibility

Specifically identifies the responsibility of top management and the need for effective leadership

Quality Manual

5.1       Management Commitment

Top management shall provide evidence of its commitment to the development and implementation of the QMS and continually improving its effectiveness

Quality Policy

5.2       Customer Focus

Top management shall ensure that customer requirements are determined and are met with the aim of enhancing customer satisfaction

Quality Policy

5.3       Quality Policy

A Quality Policy establishes a commitment to quality, a commitment to continuous improvement, the context for quality objectives and how the objectives relate to customer requirements

Quality Policy

5.4       Planning

Top management shall ensure that the planning of the QMS is carried out in order to meet the requirements of the standard as well as the quality objectives. The integrity of the QMS is maintained when changes to the QMS are planned and implemented.

Quality Manual

5.5       Responsibility, Authority & Communication

Top management shall ensure that responsibility and authorities are defined and communicated within the organisation. Everybody should know what they are expected to do (responsibilities) and what they are allowed to do (authorities). They should understand how these responsibilities and authorities relate to each other. A Management representative needs to be appointed who has responsibility for the QMS. Appropriate communication processes need to be established, and the effectiveness of the QMS must be communicated to the organisation.

Quality Manual

5.6       Management Review

The QMS must be reviewed at planned intervals, to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. Records from the review must be maintained. The review inputs and outputs must be clearly stated.

Quality Manual (Section 3)

 

 

 

 

ISO 9001:2000 Clauses

Description

Related ITD Procedure

6.         Resource Management

To ensure that the resources needed to both maintain and improve the QMS are available, and also to carry out the work required in a manner that will satisfy customer requirements.

Quality Manual (Section 4)

6.1       Provision of Resources

The organisation shall determine and provide resources needed to implement and maintain the QMS and continually improve its effectiveness, and to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements

Quality Manual (Section 3.1, 3.4 & 4)

6.2       Human Resources

Personnel performing work affecting quality of service, shall be competent on the basis of appropriate education, training, skill and experience. The organisation must determine the necessary competence and provide training to satisfy these. They must evaluate the effectiveness of the training and maintain appropriate records. They must also ensure that its personnel are aware of the relevance and importance of their activities and how they contribute to the achievement of the quality objectives

Quality Manual (Section 4) & Training Procedure.

6.3       Infrastructure

The organisation shall determine, provide and maintain the infrastructure needed to perform work. Infrastructure includes buildings, workspace, utilities, equipment and supporting services. This means determining and providing for current infrastructure requirements and planning for expected future needs.

Quality Manual (Section 4)

6.4       Work Environment

The organisation shall determine and manage the work environment needed to achieve conformity of service

Quality Manual (Section 4)

7.1       Planning of Product Realisation

The organisation shall plan and develop the processes needed for service realisation. This includes the need to establish processes, documents, and provide resources specific to the service; required verification, validation, monitoring, inspection and test activities specific to the service, and also the records needed to provide evidence that the realisation processes and resulting service meet the requirements

ITD Service Provision Procedure

7.2       Customer Related Processes

The organisation shall determine customer requirements, statutory and regulatory requirements and any additional requirements determined by the organisation, and review these requirements. Records resulting from the review and actions arising should be maintained. This clause focuses mainly on the service provided, but can cover additional factors such as regulatory or legal requirements, and unspecified customer expectations.

ITD Service Provision Procedure & Quality Manual (Section 2). ITD Project Management & System Development Procedure

7.3       Design & Development

The organisation shall plan and control the design and development of its service. This requires determining the design and development stages, the review, verification and validation of each stage, and the responsibilities and authorities for design and development. This clause requires you to have controls for the design processes and to establish a disciplined approach to the design process. The design process should include inputs, outputs, review, verification and validation. Design and development changes also need to be identified and records maintained.

ITD Project Management & System Development Procedure

 

 

ISO 9001:2000 Clauses

Description

Related ITD Procedure

7.4       Purchasing

The organisation shall ensure that purchased product conforms to specified purchase requirements. The organisation shall evaluate and select suppliers based on their ability to supply product in accordance with these requirements. Criteria for selection, evaluation and re-evaluation shall be established. Records of results of evaluation shall be maintained. The organisation shall also establish and implement the inspection or other activities necessary (verification) for ensuring that purchased product meets specified requirements.

Purchasing Procedure

7.5.1    Control of production & service provision

This clause describes the various types of controls that you might need to have in place for the delivery of service. These include the availability of information that describes the service, the availability of work instructions, the use of suitable equipment, the availability of monitoring and measuring devices and the implementation of monitoring and measurement.

Quality Manual (Section 6) and related procedures

7.5.2    Validation of processes for production and service provision

ITD do not have any processes where the resulting outputs cannot be verified by subsequent monitoring and measuring, therefore this clause is excluded

Excluded

7.5.3    Identification & Traceability

Where appropriate, the organisation shall identify the product/service by suitable means. Where traceability is a requirement, the organisation shall control and record the unique identification of the product / service. Identification is knowing what the product or service resulting from a particular process is. Where you need to identify a product/service, the methods used and the records to be kept need to be defined. Traceability is knowing where a product/service came from.

Equipment Management Procedure

7.5.4    Customer Property

The organisation shall identify, verify, protect and safeguard customer property provided for use or incorporation into the product/service.

Equipment Management Procedure

7.5.5    Preservation of Product

The organisation shall preserve the conformity of the product/service during internal processing and delivery to the intended destination. This preservation shall include identification, handling, packaging, storage and protection.

Equipment Management Procedure; Print Room Procedure and Post Room Procedure

7.6       Control of monitoring & measuring devices

This means having confidence in the equipment used to check your work. This clause applies to organisations where monitoring devices and measuring equipment are used to verify that what you are providing meets your customer requirements. Monitoring implies observation and supervision activities. Measurement considers the determination of a quantity, magnitude or dimension. Where necessary to ensure valid results, measuring equipment shall be calibrated, adjusted, safeguarded and protected from damage and deterioration.

Equipment Management Procedure

 

 

ISO 9001:2000 Clauses

Description

Related ITD Procedure

8.1       Measurement Analysis & Improvement

This clause covers the wider monitoring, measurement, analysis and improvement of the quality management system. The organisation shall plan and implement the monitoring, measurement, analysis and improvement processes needed to demonstrate conformity of the product/service, to ensure conformity of the QMS and to continually improve the effectiveness of the QMS. This shall include determination of applicable methods, including statistical techniques, and the extent of their use.

Quality Manual (Section 5)

8.2.1    Customer Satisfaction

The organisation shall monitor information relating to customer perception as to whether they have met customer requirements.  The methods for obtaining and using this information shall be determined. Monitoring of customer  satisfaction should be performed on an ongoing basis, as customers’ perceptions of performance change over time. The results of the customer satisfaction monitoring should be addressed in the management review and continual improvement activities, to identify and implement those changes which will improve the relationship with customers. Note: Satisfaction is not the opposite of dissatisfaction. Satisfaction can produce a neutral response whereas dissatisfaction can produce a strong negative response!

Quality Manual (Section 2)

8.2.2    Internal Audit

The organisation shall conduct internal audits at planned intervals to determine whether the QMS conforms to the standard and to the QMS requirements established by the organisation, and is effectively implemented and maintained. The responsibilities and requirements for planning and conducting audits, and for reporting results and maintaining records shall be defined in a documented procedure. Management must ensure that actions are taken without undue delay to eliminate detected nonconformities and their causes. Follow-up activities shall include the verification of the actions taken and the reporting of verification results.

Internal Audit Procedure

8.2.3    Monitoring & Measurement of Processes

The organisation shall apply suitable methods for monitoring and measuring the QMS processes. These methods shall demonstrate the ability of the processes to achieve planned results. When planned results are not achieved, corrective action shall be taken, as appropriate, to ensure conformity of the service.

 Quality Manual (Section 5)

8.2.4    Monitoring & Measurement of Product

There is considerable overlap between this clause and the previous one. In many cases the same monitoring or measurement procedures will be adequate for the purposes of monitoring or measuring both processes and products / services.

Quality Manual (Section 5)

8.3       Control of Nonconforming product

The standard requires you to have ways to identify a product or service nonconformity and to decide what to do about it.  You need to have a documented procedure describing how you comply with the requirements and to record any such activities. When nonconforming product is corrected it shall be subject to re-verification to demonstrate conformity to the requirements.

Quality Manual (Section 7), Print Room Procedure, Equipment Management Procedure

 

 

ISO 9001:2000 Clauses

Description

Related ITD Procedure

8.4       Analysis of Data

Analysing data is an essential activity for any possible improvement in the quality management system, in the processes and in the product/service. The organisation shall determine, collect and analyse appropriate data to demonstrate the suitability and effectiveness of the QMS and to evaluate where continual improvement of the effectiveness of the QMS can be made. This shall include data generated as a result of monitoring and measurement and from other relevant sources. The analysis of data shall provide information on customer satisfaction; conformity of product/service requirements; characteristics and trends of processes and products including opportunities for preventive action; and suppliers.

Quality Manual (Section 6)

8.5.1    Continual Improvement

Continual improvement is the process of taking actions on a recurring basis to implement agreed solutions that should bring positive benefits. The organisation shall continually improve the effectiveness of the QMS through the use of the quality policy, quality objectives, audit results, analysis of data, corrective and preventive actions and management review.

Quality Manual, Quality Policy, Quality Objectives, Management Review and Corrective & Preventive Action Procedure

8.5.2    Corrective Action

Corrective action is an important improvement activity. Corrective action identifies measures needed to correct identified problems. It seeks to eliminate permanently the causes and consequent effects of problems that could have a negative impact on business results; the organisation’s products/services, processes and QMS; and the satisfaction of customers. Corrective action involves finding the cause of a particular problem and then putting in place the necessary actions to prevent it from recurring.

Corrective & Preventive Action Procedure

8.5.3    Preventive Action

Preventive action seeks to prevent the occurrence of potential problems that could have a negative effect on business results, products/services, processes, QMS or customer satisfaction. A documented procedure shall define requirements for determining potential nonconformities and their causes; evaluating the need for action to prevent occurrence of nonconformities; determining and implementing action needed; records of the results of action taken; and reviewing preventive action taken.

Corrective & Preventive Action Procedure

 

ISO 9126 Std

                             Description

Related ITD procedure

1)Functionality

The functionality characteristic allows draw conclusions about how well software provides desired functions.

QM

a)Suitability

It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude the presence and appropriateness of a set of functions for specified tasks.

QM

b)Accuracy

The accuracy sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software achieves correct or agreeable results

QM

c)Interoperability

It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about its ability to interact with specified systems.

 

QM

d)Security

The security sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how secure software is

QM

 

 

 

2)Reliability

The reliability characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software maintains the level of system performance when used under specified conditions.

DC

a)maturity

It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about the frequency of failure by faults in the software.

 

DC

b)Fault Tolerance

It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude on its ability to maintain a specified level of performance in case of software faults or infringement of its specified interface.

 

QM

c)Recoverability

The recoverability sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software recovers from software faults or infringement of its specified interface.

 

QM

d)compliance

It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about the adherence to application related standards, conventions, and regulations in laws and similar prescriptions.

 

QM

 

 

 

3)Usability

The usability characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software can be understood, learned, used and liked by the developer.

QP

a)Understandability

Internal understandability reuse metrics assess whether new software engineers/developers can understand: whether the software is suitable;

 

DC

b)Learn ability

Internal learn ability metrics assess how long software engineers or developers take to learn how to use particular functions, and the effectiveness of documentation. Learn ability is strongly related to understandability, and understandability measurements can be indicators of the learn ability potential of the software.

QM

c)operability

Internal programmability metrics assess whether software engineers/developers can integrate and control the software.

QM

 

 

 

 

 

 

4)Re usability

Internal usability metrics are used for predicting the extend of which the software in question can be understood, learned, operated, is attractive and compliant with usability regulations and guidelines where here using means integrating it in a larger software system.

QM

a)Understandability for

reuse

Software engineers/developers should be able to select a software product which is suitable for their intended use. Internal understandability reuse metrics assess whether new software engineers/developers can understand: whether the software is suitable; how it can be used for particular tasks.

QM

b)Learn ability for re use

, internal learn ability metrics assess how long software engineers or developers take to learn how to use particular functions, and the effectiveness of documentation. Learn ability is strongly related to understandability, and understandability measurements can be indicators of the learn ability potential of the software.

DC

 

 

 

5) Efficiency

The efficiency characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software provides required performance relative to amount of resources used. It can be used for assessing, controlling and predicting the extent to which the software product (or parts of it) in question satisfies efficiency requirements.

QP

a)time  behavior

The time behavior sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well the time behavior of software is for a particular purpose.

DC

b)resource utilization

. It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about the amount and duration of resources used while performing its function.

 

 

QM

 

 

 

6)Maintainability

The maintainability characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software can be maintained. It can be used for assessing, controlling and predicting the effort needed to modify the software product (or parts of it) in question.

QM

a)Analyzability

The analyzability sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software can be analyzed. It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about the effort needed for diagnosis of deficiencies or causes of failures, or for identification of parts to be modified.

QM

b)Stability

The stability sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how stable software is. It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about the risk of unexpected effects as result of modifications.

 

QM

c)Testability

The testability sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software can be tested and is tested. It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about the effort needed for validating the software and about the test coverage.

QM

 

 

 

7)Portability

The portability characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software can be ported from one environment to another. It can be used for assessing, controlling and predicting the extend to which the software product (or parts of it) in question satisfies portability requirements.

QM

a)Adaptability

The adaptability sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software can be adapted to environmental change. It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about the amount of changes needed for the adaptation of software to different specified environments.

 

QM

b)Install ability

The installability sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software can be installed in a designated environment. It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about the effort needed to install the software in a specified environment.

 

 

QP

c)Replace ability

The replaceability sub-characteristic allows to draw conclusions about how well software can replace other software or parts of it. It correlates with metrics which measure attributes of software that allow to conclude about opportunity and effort using it instead of specified other software in the environment of that software.

 


 

QM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The traditional SCM identifies four procedures that must be defined for each software project to ensure a good SCM process is implemented. They are

  • Configuration Identification
  • Configuration Control
  • Configuration Status Accounting
  • Configuration Authentication

 

3. The testing for the features are as follows.

Reliability : Software Reliability Testing requires checking features provided by the software,the load that software can handle and regression testing.

Feature test

feature test for software conducts in following steps

  • Each operation in the software is executed once.
  • Interaction between the two operations is reduced and
  • Each operation each checked for its proper execution.

feature test is followed by the load test.

Load test

This test is conducted to check the performance of the software under maximum work load. Any software performs better up to some extent of load on it after which the response time of the software starts degrading. For example, a web site can be tested to see till how many simultaneous users it can function without performance degradation. This testing mainly helps for Databases and Application servers. Load testing also requires to do software performance testing where it checks that how well some software performs under workload.

Regression test

Regression testing is used to check if any bug fixing in the software introduced new bug. One part of the software affects the other is determined. Regression testing is conducted after every change in the software features. This testing is periodic. The period depends on the length and features of software.

  • Compatibility:- The Compatibility testing can be done as follows
  • Computing capacity of Hardware Platform (IBM 360, HP 9000, etc.)..
  • Bandwidth handling capacity of networking hardware
  • Compatibility of peripherals (Printer, DVD drive, etc.)
  • Operating systems (Linux, Windows, etc.)
  • Database (Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, etc.)
  • Other System Software (Web server, networking/ messaging tool, etc.)
  • Browser compatibility (Chrome, Firefox, Netscape, Internet Explorer, Safari, etc.)

Browser compatibility testing, can be more appropriately referred to as user experience testing. This requires that the web applications are tested on different web browsers, to ensure the following:

  • Users have the same visual experience irrespective of the browsers through which they view the web application.
  • In terms of functionality, the application must behave and respond the same way across different browsers.
  • Carrier compatibility (Verizon, Sprint, Orange, O2, AirTel, etc.)
  • Backwards compatibility.
  • Hardware (different phones)
  • Different Compilers (compile the code correctly)
  • Runs on multiple host/guest Emulators

 

Usability testing:

The best way to implement usability testing is two fold – firstly from a design & development perspective, then from a testing perspective.

From a design viewpoint, usability can be tackled by (1) Including actual Users as early as possible in the design stage. If possible, a prototype should be developed – failing that, screen layouts and designs should be reviewed on-screen and any problems highlighted.. The earlier that potential usability issues are discovered the easier it is to fix them.

(2) Following on from the screen reviews, standards should be documented i.e. Screen Layout, Labelling/Naming conventions etc. These should then be applied throughout the application.

Where an existing system or systems are being replaced or redesigned, usability issues can be avoided by using similar screen layouts – if they are already familiar with the layout the implementation of the new system will present less of a challenge, as it will be more easily accepted (provided of course, that that is not why the system is being replaced).

3). Including provisions for usability within the design specification will assist later usability testing. Usually for new application developments, and nearly always for custom application developments, the design team should either have an excellent understanding of the business processes/rules/logic behind the system being developed; and include users with first hand knowledge of same. However, although they design the system, they rarely specifically include usability provisions in the specifications.

An example of a usability consideration within the functional specification may be as simple as specifying a minimum size for the ‘Continue’ button.

4). At the unit testing stage, there should be an official review of the system – where most of those issues can more easily be dealt with. At this stage, with screen layout & design already reviewed, the focus should be on how a user navigates through the system. This should identify any potential issues such as having to open an additional window where one would suffice. More commonly though, the issues that are usually identified at this stage relate to the default or most common actions. For example, where a system is designed to cope with multiple eventualities and thus there are 15 fields on the main input screen – yet 7 or 8 of these fields are only required in rare instances. These fields could then be set as hidden unless triggered, or moved to another screen altogether.

5). All the previous actions could be performed at an early stage if Prototyping is used. This is probably the best way to identify any potential usability/operability problems. You can never lessen the importance of user-centered design, but you can solve usability problems before they get to the QA stage (thereby cutting the cost of rebuilding the product to correct the problem) by using prototypes (even paper prototypes) and other “discount usability” testing methods. 
 

6). From a testing viewpoint, usability testing should be added to the testing cycle by including a formal “User Acceptance Test”. This is done by getting several actual users to sit down with the software and attempt to perform “normal” working tasks, when the software is near release quality. I say “normal” working tasks because testers will have been testing the system from/using test cases – i.e. not from a users viewpoint. User testers must always take the customer’s point of view in their testing.

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is an excellent exercise, because not only will it give you there initial impression of the system and tell you how readily the users will take to it, but this way it will tell you whether the end product is a closer match to their expectations and there are fewer surprises. (Even though usability testing at the later stages of development may not impact software changes, it is useful to point out areas where training is needed to overcome deficiencies in the software.

(7) Another option to consider is to include actual users as testers within the test team. One financial organization I was involved with reassigned actual users as “Business Experts” as members of the test team. I found their input as actual “tester users” was invaluable.

8). The final option that may be to include user testers who are eventually going to be (a) using it themselves; and/or (b) responsible for training and effectively “selling” it to the users. 

 

Affordability testing:

A way to do affordability testing is to ask customer what is his buget and if the project manager thinks that he can do it then  affordability can be met else there is no way

 

Lab Evaluation 3 Khaja Moinuddin

Snippets 

 

Login page

<html>
<body bgcolor=”beige”>
<center>

<jsp:useBean id=”user” class=”obs.User” scope=”session” />

<jsp:setProperty name=”user” property=”*” />

<%
user.login();
if (! user.isLogged())
%>
<h3>Invalid Login. Click <a href=login.html>here</a> to try again! </h3>
<%
else
response.sendRedirect(“home.jsp”);
%>

</center>
</body>
</html>

Registeration page 

<html>
<body bgcolor=”wheat”>
<style>
h3 {font:700 12pt verdana;color:maroon}
a {font:12pt verdana;color:navy}
</style>

<center>

<jsp:useBean id=”user” class=”obs.User” scope=”session” />

<jsp:setProperty name=”user” property=”*” />

<%
String result = user.registerUser();

if ( result == null)
response.sendRedirect(“home.jsp”);
else
out.println(“<h3>Sorry! Registration Failed With Error : <p> ” + result + “</h3> <p> <a href=register.html>Try Again </a> “);

%>

</center>
</body>
</html>

orderitem

 

<jsp:useBean id=”user” scope=”session” class=”obs.User”/>
<%@page import=”java.sql.*”%>

<html>
<style>
a.topic {font:700 11pt verdana;color:white}
td {font:10pt verdana}
th {font:700 10pt verdana;background-color:green;color:white}
</style>

<body bgcolor=”beige”>
<h1>Order Items </h1>

 

<%
String ordid = request.getParameter(“ordid”);
String status = request.getParameter(“status”);

String cmd = “select oi.isbn,title, oi.price,qty, oi.price * qty amount from orderitem oi, books b where b.isbn = oi.isbn and ordid = ” + ordid;

Connection con = user.getConnection();
Statement st = con.createStatement();

ResultSet rs = st.executeQuery(cmd);

%>

<p>

<table width=”100%” cellpadding=2 border=1>
<tr>
<th> ISBN
<th> Title
<th> Price
<th> Quantity
<th> Amount
</tr>

<%
while ( rs.next())
{
%>

<tr>
<td> <%=rs.getInt(1)%>
<td> <%= rs.getString(2)%>
<td> <%= rs.getInt(3)%>
<td> <%= rs.getString(4)%>
<td> <%= rs.getString(5)%>
</tr>

<%
}

rs.close();
st.close();
con.close();

%>

</table>

<p>
<%
if ( status.equals(“n”))
{
%>

<a href=”deleteorder.jsp?ordid=<%=ordid%>”>Cancel This Order</a>
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
<%

}
%>

 

<a href=”javascript:history.back()”>Back </a>

 

 

 

Lab evaluation 3 Khaja Moinuddin

  1. identify the programming paradigm applicable for the case?

I think web framework for online book store requires object oriented paradigms.

And I am using jsp for writing server side pages and by default it also uses Servlets.

 

 2 list the elements of coding standards included in this case?

1 Separate class, instance, and local variables.

2 Braces go on their own lines.     

3 Indent at 4 spaces

4 Spaces go around the arguments, not around the keywords

5 Comments must be used not where ever needed

6 Using Javadoc @version

7 Do not use “this”

 3 describe how the following features identified in design were implemented- reliability, compatibility, maintainability, usability, affordability.

Reliability:

                   the server must provide rollback for transactions whenever there is a failure. The system shall be available 24 hrs a day and 7 days a week.

Usability

the system must use web pages that are visible 

The system shall support large number of simultaneous users

against the central database at any time.

Compatibility

                 The software is compatible with different machine as well as different operating system (Mac,Linux etc.). As there can be variety is user.

Affordability

                  The Software is developed using coding standards, so there is less cost in maintainence and testing. At the same time user requirements are also fulfilled.

Maintainbility

                  In case of system failure, system can be restored to previous best know configuration.

New features can also be added with very less changes.

 

the link to github is as follows 

https://github.com/KhajaMoinuddin/web-framework-online-Book-Store-.git